|Position Paper of the People's Republic of China At the 68th Session of the United Nations General Assembly|
I. The Role of the United Nations (UN)
The international situation is undergoing profound and complex changes. There is extensive support for world multi-polarity and greater democracy in international relations. Economic globalization and information technology are changing the world in a profound way. Countries are more interdependent. At the same time, the international community still faces many challenges. Various traditional and non-traditional security threats are entwined. The North-South development gap remains pronounced. The global governance mechanisms need to be improved.
To address difficult global issues and challenges requires the joint efforts of all UN Member States. The UN, as the most inclusive and representative inter-governmental organization, is a big stage for countries to uphold peace, pursue common development and conduct mutually beneficial cooperation and for people of the world to pursue their dreams. The purposes and principles of the Charter of the United Nations are the cornerstone of contemporary international relations. The international community should continue to uphold the post-war peace order and encourage the UN to play an important role in international affairs.
II. UN Reform
Facing the challenges brought by globalization and profound changes in the international situation, the international community has higher expectations for the UN. China hopes that the UN will keep abreast of the times and actively respond to these expectations by enhancing itself. Reform should help strengthen the capacity of the UN in coordinating international efforts to respond to global challenges and give developing countries more voice in international affairs. Reform should be an all-round one and be advanced in a balanced manner in security, development and human rights. In particular, positive results should be achieved in development.
China supports necessary and reasonable reform to the Security Council so that it will enjoy more authority and efficiency and better fulfill the responsibilities for maintaining international peace and security bestowed on it by the Charter of the United Nations. The priority of the Security Council reform should be on increasing the representation of developing countries, especially African countries, in the Security Council so that small and medium-sized countries will have more opportunities to sit on the Security Council in turns, participate in its decision-making, and play a bigger role in the Security Council. Given the broad agenda of the Security Council reform, it is important to continue with democratic and patient consultations, accommodate the interests and concerns of all parties, seek a package solution and reach the broadest possible agreement.
III. Political and Security Issues
1. Peacekeeping Operations
UN peacekeeping operations are an important and effective means for maintaining international peace and security. The peacekeeping operations, given their expanded scale and broadened mandate, are facing growing challenges today. China maintains that in conducting peacekeeping operations, it is important to strictly abide by and carry out the mandate of relevant Security Council resolutions, adhere to the three principles of “consent of the parties, impartiality and non-use of force except in self-defense and defense of the mandate” put forward by former UN Secretary-General Dag Hammarskjold, strengthen operation planning, set out clear priorities, and coordinate actions to form synergy. There should be better coordination between peacekeeping, peacemaking and peacebuilding. The UN should place greater emphasis on enhancing cooperation with regional and sub-regional organizations, and pay more attention to the needs of African countries in its peacekeeping operations.
China attaches importance to and actively participates in UN peacekeeping operations. To date, China has sent over 20,000 military personnel, police officers and civilian officials to UN peacekeeping operations. At present, there are nearly 2,000 Chinese peacekeepers on duty in nine operations, making China the 18th largest troop-contributing country in the world and the biggest peacekeeper contributor among the five permanent members of the Security Council.
Peacebuilding helps eliminate the root cause of conflicts, and plays a significant role in realizing lasting peace and stability in relevant countries and regions. As the first agency in the UN system entrusted with the responsibility of coordinating post-conflict rebuilding, the Peacebuilding Commission (PBC) has played an important role in helping with the rebuilding of post-conflict countries. China supports the UN’s leading role in post-conflict rebuiliding and work of the PBC and the Peacebuilding Fund (PBF). The PBC should fully respect the independent rights of the countries concerned, support their efforts in collecting resources and make better use of the PBF. The PBC should improve its work method and efficiency, further strengthen its institutions and, at the same time, enhance coordination and cooperation with the General Assembly, the Security Council and other major agencies as well as international financial institutions and regional organizations. China will continue to support the work of the PBC.
3. Protection of Civilians in Armed Conflict
China is deeply concerned about the threat and loss of the life and property of civilians caused by armed conflict, and urges the parties concerned to abide by the international law and relevant Security Council resolutions in good faith and give full protection to civilians caught up in armed conflict.
According to the Charter of the United Nations and the international humanitarian law, the responsibility to protect civilians rests first and foremost with the government of the country concerned. When providing assistance, the international community should adhere to the principles of "impartiality, objectiveness and neutrality", obtain the consent of the host country, fully respect its sovereignty and territorial integrity, and refrain from interfering in local political disputes or impeding the peace process.
The protection of civilians should be incorporated into the political process aimed at seeking peaceful solutions to conflict. It should also be given priority in post-conflict rebuilding. The relevant UN agencies should strengthen coordination and form synergy in this respect.
Terrorism is the common enemy of the world. The international community has scaled up input, reached broader consensus, carried out deeper cooperation and made substantial progress in the fight against terrorism. Yet on the other hand, the breeding ground for terrorism has not been removed, terrorist threats to the international community are far from disappearing, and the international counter-terrorism situation remains as grave as ever.
The international community should carry out extensive cooperation to jointly combat terrorism in accordance with the Charter of the United Nations, and other universally recognized international law and norms governing international relations. The UN and its Security Council should play a leading and coordinating role in the battle against terrorism. A holistic approach that addresses both the symptoms and root causes of terrorism should be adopted to remove the breeding ground for terrorism with the integrated use of political, economic and diplomatic means. China opposes the practice of double standards in fighting terrorism or linking terrorism to specific countries, ethnic groups or religions.
China is a victim of terrorism. The “Eastern Turkestan Islamic Movement” and other “Eastern Turkestan” terrorist forces have long been plotting and instigating violent terrorist attacks against the Chinese government and people. The fight against the “Eastern Turkestan” terrorist forces is an important part of the international anti-terrorism campaign. China will continue to take an active part in international counter-terrorism cooperation and work with all countries to fight the “Eastern Turkestan” and other international terrorist forces.
5. Situation on the Korean Peninsula
To uphold peace and stability and achieve the denuclearization of the Korean Peninsula serves the common interests of all parties concerned and represents the call of the international community. China’s position on the issues on the Korean Peninsula is consistent. China is committed to a denuclearized and peaceful Peninsula and resolving the issues through dialogue. China holds the view that dialogue and consultation is the only effective way to resolve the relevant issues, and that the Six-Party Talks is an effective platform for addressing the concerns of the parties in a balanced manner and achieving denuclearization of the Peninsula. China hopes that the parties will maintain contact and dialogue, stay committed to resolving differences through negotiation and resume the Six-Party Talks at an early date. China is ready to work with the other parties to continue to play a constructive role in this process.
Since the political transformation started in Myanmar, positive progress has been made in its political and national reconciliation. There is good momentum of development. As a friendly neighbor, China will continue to support Myanmar's efforts in realizing domestic stability and development and advancing political and national reconciliation. China supports Myanmar in developing friendly and cooperative relations with other countries based on equality and mutual benefit, and welcomes the lifting of sanctions on Myanmar by relevant countries. The international community should continue to create a sound external environment for Myanmar to steadily advance reform, achieve enduring stability and accelerate development, and respect the development path chosen by the people of Myanmar based on their national conditions.
Afghanistan has made positive progress in peace and reconstruction, but still faces some difficulties and challenges. It requires the efforts of both the people of Afghanistan and the international community to bring about a peaceful, stable and independent Afghanistan that enjoys development.
China supports and has actively participated in Afghanistan's peace and reconstruction process. We support the Afghan-led and Afghan-owned reconciliation process and we support Afghanistan in its continued efforts to strengthen capacity-building, improve the security environment and develope cooperation with countries in the region. The relevant parties should create conditions for the Afghan government to assume the security responsibilities, honor the assistance commitment to Afghanistan's economic and social development, and gradually and smoothly transfer the security responsibilities to Afghanistan on the basis of ensuring peace and stability in the country. The international community should strengthen coordination and collaboration and work together for the early arrival of an Afghanistan governed by the Afghan people.
8. Iranian Nuclear Issue
China supports upholding the international non-proliferation regime, and calls for a proper solution to the Iranian nuclear issue through dialogue and negotiation to maintain peace and stability in the Middle East. As a signatory to the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT), Iran has the right to peaceful use of nuclear energy and should at the same time fulfill its international non-proliferation obligation.
China believes that dialogue and negotiation is the only right way to properly resolve the Iranian nuclear issue and serves the fundamental interests of all parties. Thanks to the concerted efforts of all relevant parties, the dialogue between the P5+1 countries and Iran has entered the stage of substantive negotiation. Under the current situation, the relevant parties should keep to the direction of dialogue, step up diplomatic efforts, adopt a flexible and pragmatic attitude, seek common ground while resolving differences, and push for early progress in the dialogue. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and Iran should also strengthen cooperation and strive for substantive results.
China has worked actively to promote peace and encourage dialogue for resolving the Iranian issue. To uphold the international nuclear non-proliferation regime and peace and stability in the Middle East, China will work with other parties to play a constructive role in finding a comprehensive, long-term and proper solution to the issue.
9. Situation in West Asia and North Africa
West Asia and North Africa have been in continuous turmoil. China has followed the situation very closely. China respects the rights of regional countries and peoples in exploring a development path suited to their national conditions, and encourages relevant parties to settle their differences through inclusive political dialogue. China maintains that the international community should adhere to the purposes and principles of the Charter of the United Nations and basic norms governing international relations, respect the sovereignty, independence and territorial integrity of regional countries, and play a constructive role in easing local tensions. China opposes external military intervention or pushing for a "regime change". The international community should step up economic assistance to and enhance cooperation with the region to create favorable conditions for regional stability and development.
10. Middle East Peace Process
China supports and has actively promoted the Middle East peace process. It is China's long-held position that the parties concerned should properly solve their disputes through political and diplomatic means on the basis of relevant UN resolutions, the principle of "land for peace", the Arab Peace Initiative and the Middle East Roadmap with the goal of ultimately establishing an independent Palestinian state and achieving normalization of relations between Isreal and all Arab countries.
The Palestinian issue is at the core of the Middle East issue. China supports the Palestinian people's efforts to establish an independent Palestinian state that enjoys full sovereignty, with East Jerusalem as its capital and based on the 1967 borders. We support Palestine in joining the UN and other international organizations. China welcomes the restart of peace talks between Palestine and Israel, and calls on both sides to seize the opportunity, take concrete steps to remove obstacles and rebuild trust and achieve substantive progress at early as possible.
China supports various Palestinian factions in continuing to press ahead with internal reconciliation and strengthening unity and cooperation. We support Palestine's capacity-building and will continue to provide help to this end as our ability permits. We call on the international community to provide greater support for Palestine to develope the economy and improve its people's lives.
Talks on the Syria-Israel and Lebanon-Israel tracks are important components of the Middle East peace process. They deserve attention and should be pushed forward. China will work with the international community for an early, comprehensive and just settlement of the Middle East issue.
Continued conflict in Syria has brought sufferings to the Syrian people and impacted peace and stability in the Middle East. China is deeply worried about the situation. China maintains that political settlement is the only realistic way out of the Syrian crisis. All relevant parties in Syria should take credible steps to implement the spirit of the communiqué of the foreign ministers' meeting of the Action Group on Syria, cease fire and stop violence immediately, positively respond to the initiative of holding the second Geneva conference on the Syrian issue, and start and implement a Syrian-led, inclusive political transition as soon as possible. Relevant parties in the international community should provide positive and constructive help for the political settlement of the Syrian issue and avoid taking any action that could further militarize the crisis.
China follows the latest developments in Syria closely. We firmly oppose the use of chemical weapons by anyone. China supports the UN investigation team in conducting independent, objective, impartial and professional investigations. The next step should be determined by the Security Council based on the findings of the UN investigation team. Unilateral military actions that bypass the Security Council will have serious impact on the situation in Syria and the Middle East region and they are also a violation of international law and the basic norms governing international relations.
China has maintained an objective and just position and a responsible attitude on the Syrian issue. We are committed to protecting the fundamental interests of the Syrian people, maintaining peace and stability in the Middle East region and upholding the purposes and principles of the Charter of the United Nations and basic norms governing international relations. China has made consistent efforts to promote peace and encourage dialogue, firmly supported and actively promoted the political settlement of the Syrian issue, and supported Mr. Brahimi, UN-Arab League Joint Special Representative for Syria, in making impartial mediation. China will respect and support any settlement plan on the Syrian issue as long as it is widely accepted by all relevant parties in Syria. China has watched closely the humanitarian situation in Syria. We have provided humanitarian assistance to the Syrian people, including Syrian refugees in other countries, as our ability permits, and will continue to do so.
12. Relations between Sudan and South Sudan
Relations between Sudan and South Sudan have relaxed on the whole, but have still encountered ups and downs due to some pending issues. China has followed the situation. We sincerely hope that the two sides will act in the fundamental interests of their peoples and the larger interest of regional peace and stability, respect each other's core concerns, honor in good faith the agreements signed, and properly resolve differences through negotiation based on mutual understanding and mutual accommodation. The international community should continue to support dialogue between the two sides and work together to maintain peace and stability in Sudan, South Sudan and the region as a whole. China is ready to work with the international community and continue to play a constructive role in promoting the realization of peace, stability and development in Sudan and South Sudan.
13. The Darfur Issue of Sudan
China supports the political settlement of the Darfur issue and maintains that the role of the tripartite mechanism involving the UN, the AU and the government of Sudan as the main channel should be brought into full play and the "dual-track" strategy of peacekeeping deployment and political negotiation should be advanced in a balanced way. China welcomes the signing of the peace agreement between the Sudanese government and the Justice and Equality Movement-Bashar and hopes that other factions in Darfur will join the political negotiation process as quickly as possible. The international community should help Sudan improve the humanitarian and security situation in Darfur and realize peace, stability and development in the region at an early date.
Somalia has made major progress in the political and security fields, and established its first formal government and parliament in over 20 years. China welcomes this progress and hopes that the Somali government and people will seize the current opportunity to achieve peace, stability and national reconstruction at an early date. The international community should honor its commitment of assistance for Somalia, increase support for the AU Mission in Somalia and support the work of the UN Assistance Mission in Somalia. China will continue to strengthen cooperation with the Somali government and support the UN, the AU and African countries in playing a constructive role in realizing durable peace and national reconstruction of Somalia.
15．Democratic Republic of the Congo
The situation in the east of the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) concerns the peace and development of the whole country and the region at large. China hopes that the parties concerned will increase dialogue and consultation and earnestly implement the Peace, Security and Cooperation Framework for the DRC and the Great Lakes Region in a joint effort to safeguard regional peace and stability. China appreciates the good offices and mediation efforts of the UN, the AU, the International Conference on the Great Lakes Region and relevant countries for easing the situation in the east of the DRC. China will work with the international community and continue to play a positive role in resolving the situation in the east of the DRC.
With the support of the international community, the political and security situation in Mali has further improved. China welcomes the smooth general election in Mali and hopes that the election will usher in new progress of peace, stability and development in Mali. China supports promoting parallel progress in peace and security on the one hand and political reconciliation on the other in Mali. China will work with the international community and make positive contribution to Mali's efforts in safeguarding national stability and promoting economic and social development.
IV. Development Issues
1. Millennium Development Goals (MDGs)
The MDGs serve as an important guideline for international development cooperation. Some positive progress has been made in meeting the MDGs. But globally, implementation of the MDGs is far from even. Developing countries face many difficulties in fulfilling the MDGs on time.
The international community must not slacken its efforts in pushing for the attainment of the MDGs. The priority of international development cooperation should still be fulfilling the solemn commitments made by world leaders to fully achieve the MDGs, ensure development resources, focus on helping African countries achieve development and eradicate poverty, and increase support for least developed countries as a matter of priority. Developing countries should also take concrete actions to achieve development in line with their national conditions. The UN should continue to play a central role in international development cooperation and provide institutional guarantee for the realization of the MDGs.
2. Post-2015 Development Agenda
The post-2015 development agenda should be advanced steadily on the basis of a comprehensive assessment of the current state of international development cooperation, especially the global implementation of the MDGs. The process should be led by governments of the member states and conducted under the UN framework.
The post-2015 development agenda aims to set out on the basis of consensus a set of goals for the international community to guide international development cooperation and national development in a spirit of equality, mutual trust, inclusiveness, mutual learning and win-win cooperation. The development agenda is designed to encourage countries to build stronger unity and cooperation, stick together in difficult times, share rights and responsibilities and jointly meet challenges to eradicate the threat of poverty and hunger once and for all, realize balanced and sustainable development and inclusive growth and advance the common interests of mankind. The development agenda should give top priority to meeting the difficulties and challenges that developing countries, especially African and least developed countries, face, tackling the development imbalances between the North and the South to narrow the development gap and pushing for a global development partnership of win-win cooperation to energize international development cooperation.
The post-2015 development agenda should reflect some basic principles. It should continue to take poverty eradication as the core and development as the theme. It should take into full account the different national conditions and development stages of various countries and respect the development paths of all countries. It is important to strengthen the global development partnership, adhere to the principle of "common but differentiated responsibilities", put in place a sound implementation mechanism, increase financing for development, promote trade and investment liberalization and facilitation and scale up official development assistance and technical support for developing countries.
China will take an active part in the upcoming UN Special Event towards Achieving the MDGs in September. China hopes that the conference will seriously review and accelerate the progress in attaining the MDGs, and at the same time formulate a roadmap for the post-2015 development agenda and set in motion the inter-governmental negotiations as quickly as possible.
3. Sustainable Development
Sustainable development is closely linked to the long-term and immediate interests of all countries. The United Nations held the UN Conference on Environment and Development in 1992 and the World Summit on Sustainable Development in 2002, formulating action plans for all countries and the international community to realize sustainable development.
The UN Conference on Sustainable Development was held in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil in June 2012. At a time when the global economy and international development cooperation were faced with difficulties, the conference sent a positive, clear and strong signal of revitalizing international cooperation on sustainable development and added new vigor to the global process of sustainable development.
The conference decided to establish an intergovernmental process for the sustainable development goals (SDGs) as well as a High-level Political Forum for Sustainable Development and an Intergovernmental Committee on Sustainable Development Financing. The relevant process needs to coordinate the three pillars of economy, society and environment, promote sustainable development in the course of development, and effectively resolve the financial, technological and capacity-building issues facing developing countries in pursuing sustainable development.
China is actively involved in and works hard to advance the process of sustainable development in the world. China will work with all sides in an open and practical manner to actively participate in the follow-up process of the UN Conference on Sustainable Development and contribute to the global cause of sustainable development.
4. Climate Change
Climate change is a severe challenge for the whole of mankind. It bears on human survival and development, thus requiring strengthened international cooperation and a joint response. China welcomes the positive outcomes of the Doha Climate Change Conference at the end of 2012, including the second commitment period of the Kyoto Protocol. China hopes that developed countries will demonstrate political sincerity to honor their commitments, further cut emissions, and provide sufficient financial, technological and capacity-building support for developing countries to help them build the capacity to tackle climate change.
The Chinese government has always attached great importance to climate change. With a sense of responsibility to the Chinese people and long-term development of mankind, the Chinese government has adopted a series of strong measures to tackle climate change and achieved notable results. The 12th Five-Year Plan adopted by China's National People's Congress has incorporated mandatory targets for tackling climate change. It was decided at the 18th National Congress of the Communist Party of China in 2012 that efforts will be made to fully implement the Scientific Outlook on Development, promote ecological progress, accelerate the shift of growth model, promote green development, circular development and low-carbon development and build a beautiful China. This is the model chosen by China for its future development and an important contribution to the global efforts against climate change. We will continue to play an active and constructive part in international negotiations on climate change and work with other parties to advance international negotiations on climate change and build a fair and reasonable system for international cooperation on climate change based on the principles of "common but differentiated responsibilities", equity and respective capabilities, and with full consideration of the historical responsibilities of developed countries and the needs of developing countries for sustainable development.
5. Food Security
Food security is an issue of paramount importance for mankind's survival and development. It not only has a close bearing on the economy and people’s livelihood of all countries, but also concerns the development and security of mankind. Food security in the world is increasingly affected by non-traditional challenges and the situation is ever more complex. Developing countries are the weak link for ensuring world food security. The impact of food-based biofuel production on food security is not to be overlooked, and climate change is also posing a long-term challenge to food security.
China takes agriculture and food security very seriously. We have followed the policy of basically relying on domestic supply to realize self-sufficiency while making adjustments as appropriate through import and export. We have steadily raised grain and agricultural productivity with the implementation of such policies and measures as stepping up financial investment, strengthening irrigation and water conservancy projects and accelerating the development of agricultural science and technology. China has managed to feed nearly 21% of the world's population with less than 9% of the world's farmland and achieved the MDG on poverty alleviation ahead of schedule. China has established mechanisms to ensure long-term food security and sufficient food reserve. We have the confidence and capacity to ensure long-term food security by mainly relying on domestic production.
While addressing our own food security challenges, the Chinese government has also provided agricultural assistance to the best of its ability to the relevant developing countries within the framework of South-South cooperation, including building agricultural technology demonstration centers and providing agricultural technical assistance and emergency humanitarian food assistance, thus making its own contribution to the improvement of food security in these developing countries.
6. Energy Security
Energy security has a close bearing on the stability and growth of the world economy and the well-being of people in all countries. Major changes are taking place in the global energy landscape. With the emergence and rapid growth of non-conventional sources of oil and gas such as shale gas, the United States and the western hemisphere have become major energy producers. Due to the impact of the global economic and financial environment, the international oil prices have kept fluctuating, and are expected to present lots of uncertainties in the future. Developing countries, who have no say in setting energy prices, are faced with more and more challenges in ensuring long-term and stable energy supply.
The international community should foster a new energy security outlook featuring mutually beneficial cooperation, diversified development and coordinated supply. Joint efforts should be made to stabilize the prices of energy and other commodities and prevent excessive speculation and market hype, so as to meet the energy demands of all countries, particularly the developing countries, and maintain order in the energy market. Meanwhile, countries should improve their own energy mix, promote the research, development and diffusion of advanced energy technologies, vigorously develop clean and renewable energies, and actively advance international cooperation in the relevant fields.
The Chinese government attaches great importance to issues of energy and energy security, and adheres to the principle of giving priority to conservation, mainly relying on domestic supply, seeking diversified development and protecting the environment. China will vigorously promote revolution in energy production and consumption, keep total energy consumption under control, promote energy conservation and support the development of energy-saving and low-carbon industries as well as new and renewable energies. China is ready to work with other countries to establish a long-term energy cooperation mechanism and make its due contribution to ensuring global energy security and tackling climate change.
7. Financing for Development
The inadequate financing for development has always been a major challenge to international development. At present, as financing for development is confronted with major difficulties, developing countries find it harder to raise funds through trade and investment.
The pressing task now is to establish and improve a global development partnership featuring equality, mutual benefit and win-win progress, earnestly implement the Monterrey Consensus, and ensure that the MDGs are met on schedule by 2015. China calls for efforts in the following five priority areas: First, increase the resources and strengthen the institutions of development. Second, developed countries should deliver on their commitment to increase their official development assistance to 0.7% of their gross national income, and further reduce or cancel debts owed by developing countries and open markets to them. Third, strengthen global economic governance and increase the representation and say of developing countries in international economic and financial institutions. Fourth, curb trade protectionism and make sure the Doha Round negotiations achieve its development objectives. Fifth, create a favorable external development environment for developing countries.
8. South-South Cooperation
South-South cooperation is an important channel for developing countries to draw on each other's strengths for common development, and an important means for developing countries to meet development challenges through mutual assistance. In recent years, South-South cooperation has made positive progress, and trade and investment flows between developing countries are thriving. Some new mechanisms and initiatives have been launched, injecting fresh vitality into South-South cooperation.
South-South cooperation is a form of win-win cooperation between developing countries. It is mutually beneficial, voluntary and unconditional. It is different from North-South cooperation and complements, rather than replaces, the latter. The standards for North-South cooperation are not applicable to South-South cooperation. Developing countries should conduct more coordination on major international issues, work for a more just and reasonable international order and system, and jointly uphold their legitimate rights and interests. They should, in the spirit of equality and mutual benefit, continue to explore new channels, content and models of cooperation in light of the evolving situation and their own needs. They should also enhance coordination and make full use of multilateral mechanisms, promote trade and investment liberalization and facilitation, and oppose trade protectionism in all its forms.
9. Doha Round Negotiations
To advance and bring to a successful conclusion the Doha Round negotiations serves the common interests of all parties as this will help consolidate and improve the multilateral trading regime, curtail trade protectionism, and promote global economic recovery and sustainable development.
China is committed to building a fair, equitable and non-discriminatory multilateral trading regime and has taken a constructive and positive approach toward the Doha Round negotiations. We call on all parties to demonstrate sufficient political will and advance the negotiations in real earnest, so that an “early harvest” agreement can be achieved at the Ninth WTO Ministerial Conference at the end of this year. In our view, first we must uphold the Doha mandate and the existing achievements. Second, we must adhere to its development goal and take into full account the interests and concerns of developing members, particularly the least developed countries. Third, we must work to eventually reach a package deal.
10. Reform of the International Financial System
In the wake of the international financial crisis, there has been consensus among all parties over the necessity to reform the current international financial system. China believes that the objective of the reform is to establish a fair, equitable, inclusive and well-managed new international financial order under the principles of being comprehensive, balanced, incremental, and results-oriented. First, improve the international financial governance system and increase the representation of emerging markets and developing countries in international financial institutions and monetary system; second, improve the international financial supervisory and regulatory regime, strengthen supervision over developed economies hosting important financial centers and their macroeconomic policies, strengthen regulation over cross-border capital flow and commodity derivatives, and reform the sovereign credit rating mechanism; third, improve the international monetary system, improve the reserve currency issuance regulatory mechanism, maintain the relative stability of the exchange rates of major reserve currencies; fourth, strengthen the functions of international financial institutions in development and poverty reduction, and narrow the North-South gap.
11. Africa's Development
Maintaining stability and development in Africa is as much a common responsibility of the international community as a pressing task of African countries. In recent years, African countries have made vigorous efforts to promote their economic growth, and their economies, driven by multiple sectors, have shown a sound momentum of growth. The talk of Africa’s development opportunities is gaining steam. To help African countries achieve greater development, the international community, developed countries in particular, should provide more support and help to Africa, honor the aid commitments and enhance African countries' capacity for development. It should respect African countries' independent choice of development paths suited to their national conditions, and support their efforts to independently address African issues and Africa’s integration process. It should help the continent maintain and consolidate peace and stability so as to put its development on a solid footing. It should respect and support African countries' special concerns on sustainable development issues and take strong measures to help African countries tackle difficulties and challenges. It should take concrete steps to increase the say and representation of Africa in the international financial system, expand Africa's effective participation in global governance and strengthen Africa's capacity to tackle such global challenges as the international financial crisis and climate change.
For decades, China has provided sincere help to African countries and continuously strengthened mutually beneficial cooperation with Africa, contributing to the economic and social development in Africa. China has introduced and implemented a series of cooperation measures in support of Africa's development within the framework of the Forum on China-Africa Cooperation (FOCAC). At the UN High-level Event on the MDGs in 2010, China announced six measures of foreign assistance for the following five years of which African countries will be the main beneficiaries. At the 5th Ministerial Conference of the FOCAC in July 2012, China proposed a series of new measures supporting peace and development in Africa. China will implement these measures in earnest and continue to make its due contribution as African countries work to reduce poverty, improve people's life and enhance their capacity for independent development.
V. Arms Control, Disarmament and Non-Proliferation
1. Nuclear Weapons
China has consistently and actively advocated the complete prohibition and thorough destruction of nuclear weapons. China is firmly committed to a nuclear strategy based on self-defence and has upheld its commitment that it would not be the first to use nuclear weapons at any time and under any circumstances and that it would unconditionally refrain from using or threatening to use nuclear weapons against non-nuclear-weapon states or nuclear-weapon-free zones. China has exercised utmost restraint regarding the scale and development of its nuclear arsenal, never deployed nuclear weapons in other countries and never taken part in any form of nuclear arms race. China will continue to keep its nuclear force at the minimum level required for national security.
China supports the Geneva Conference on Disarmament (CD) in reaching agreement on a comprehensive and balanced program of work and starting considering substantive issues at an early date. China upholds the authority and effectiveness of the multilateral disarmament regime, supports the CD in launching negotiation on the Fissile Material Cut-off Treaty at an early date, always regards the CD as the only appropriate forum for negotiating the Treaty and has been working actively to promote consensus-building among the parties to bridge differences. China firmly supports the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty and pushes for its early entry into force.
China believes that the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT) is the cornerstone of the international nuclear non-proliferation regime. China hopes that the parties concerned will make joint efforts to earnestly implement the final documents of the 2010 review conference. In the current situation, the universality, authority and effectiveness of the NPT should be upheld and strengthened for it to play an even bigger role in preventing proliferation of nuclear weapons, promoting nuclear disarmament and the peaceful use of nuclear energy.
China takes seriously nuclear safety and security, opposes nuclear terrorism, supports increasing relevant international cooperation and welcomes progress made in this regard at the Washington Nuclear Security Summit of 2010 and the Seoul Nuclear Security Summit of 2012. China stands ready to work with all parties to push for positive results at the 2014 Nuclear Security Summit in the Netherlands.
China maintains that safety should come first in the use of nuclear energy. China supports the international community in taking concrete measures to enhance nuclear safety and conducting international cooperation to promote the sound and sustainable development of nuclear energy.
2. Chemical and Biological Weapons
China supports the purposes and objectives of both the Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC) and the Biological Weapons Convention (BWC). China has fully and strictly fulfilled its obligations under the two Conventions and supports the enhancement of their universality. China finds it regrettable that relevant states parties that possess chemical weapons and those that abandoned such weapons on the territories of other states parties failed to complete the destruction process before the scheduled deadline of the CWC, and urges such countries to follow relevant decisions of the Conference of the States Parties and the Executive Council and make further efforts to complete the destruction according to the timetable of relevant decisions and destruction plans. The Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW) should effectively supervise the destruction process. China took an active and constructive part in the Third Review Conference of the States Parties of the CWC. We stand ready to make concerted efforts with all parties toward the implementation of the Convention in a comprehensive and balanced manner. China has worked with other States Parties of the BWC in actively implementing the outcomes of the Seventh Review Conference of the Convention and will continue to promote the constructive role of the BWC in diffusing the threat of biological weapons, preventing their proliferation and enhancing the peaceful use of biotechnology.
China is firmly opposed to the proliferation of WMDs and their means of delivery, and strictly fulfills its international obligations and relevant commitments. To achieve the goal of non-proliferation, all countries should help build a global and regional security environment of mutual trust and cooperation, reduce the motivation for the proliferation of WMDs; resolve proliferation issues by political and diplomatic means; uphold and strengthen the international non-proliferation regime; and handle the relationship between non-proliferation and the peaceful use of science and technology in a balanced way and abandon double standards. China would like to step up exchanges and cooperation with all parties to move forward the international non-proliferation process.
4. Peace in Outer Space
China stands for the peaceful use of outer space and opposes arms race in or the introduction of weapons into outer space. China maintains that the international community should conclude relevant international legal instruments as soon as possible to fundamentally remove security threats to outer space. China values the positive role of the Transparency and Confidence-Building Measures (TCBM) in safeguarding security in outer space, supports the principle of "inclusiveness and complementarity" in promoting the prevention of arms race and the TCBM process in outer space. China will take a constructive part in the work of the UN Group of Governmental Experts on Outer Space TCBM and the discussions on the International Code of Conduct for Activities in Outer Space.
5. Information and Cyber Security
Information security has become a comprehensive security challenge for all nations. Countries should, on the basis of mutual respect and mutual trust, strengthen international cooperation, work together to create a peaceful, secure, open and cooperative cyberspace, and ensure the security of all countries.
China firmly upholds information security and supports the international efforts to bolster information security. China maintains that information and communications technologies should be used to advance economic and social development and human well-being, and to promote world peace and stability. China opposes cyber war or cyber arms race. We support protection of the free flow of information in accordance with national laws and oppose using cyberspace to interfere in other countries' internal affairs. China recognizes the essential role of the Internet in the economic and social development of all countries and stands for incremental achievement of fair and democratic governance of the Internet.
In this connection, it is crucial to formulate international rules on cyberspace to guide and regulate the behavior of all parties in cyberspace, especially that of states. To this end, China, Russia, Tajikistan, Uzbekistan, Kyrgyzstan and Kazakhstan have jointly proposed a draft resolution on international code of conduct on information security at the UN General Assembly, which may serve as a foundation for relevant international discussions. China will continue to work with the international community to build on the draft resolution and reach consensus at an early date to safeguard the common interests of the international community.
China recognizes the leading role of the United Nations in safeguarding cyber security. China welcomes the report of the Group of Governmental Experts on the Issue of Information Security drafted in June 2013, which identified the overall goal of peaceful use of cyberspace and the principle of state sovereignty in cyberspace. China will continue to support relevant efforts within the United Nations framework to establish the code of conduct for countries in cyberspace at an early date, promote practical cooperation among countries and earnestly safeguard cyber security.
6. Military Transparency
China attaches importance to military transparency and is committed to enhancing mutual trust in the military field with other countries. In 2007, China joined the UN Standardized Instrument for Reporting Military Expenditures and returned to the UN Register of Conventional Arms. China has taken a constructive and active part in the work of the Group of Governmental Experts on the United Nations Register of Conventional Arms.
7. Humanitarian Issues in the Field of Arms Control
China attaches importance to the humanitarian issues in the field of arms control and actively commits itself to enhancing the universality and effectiveness of the Convention on Certain Conventional Weapons (CCW) and its Protocols. China has actively engaged in international de-mining assistance and helped free relevant countries from the plague of landmines. China has been an active and constructive participant in the Arms Trade Treaty negotiation process. China is ready to make continued efforts with all parties to regulate international arms trade. China supports the international efforts in combating illicit trade in small arms and light weapons and earnestly implements the United Nations Program of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects and the International Instrument to Enable States to Identify and Trace, in a Timely and Reliable Manner, Illicit Small Arms and Light Weapons.
VI. Human Rights
Governments of all countries are duty-bound to promote and protect human rights in accordance with the purposes and principles of the Charter of the United Nations and relevant provisions of the international instruments on human rights, taking into account their respective national conditions. The international community should recognize that all human rights are indivisible and attach equal importance to the realization of the economic, social and cultural rights, the civil and political rights, and the right to development. Due to different national conditions, countries have taken different approaches to and adopted different models on human rights. There is no one-size-fits-all model.
The Chinese government is an active advocate of international cooperation in the field of human rights. We stand for constructive dialogue and exchanges on the basis of equality and mutual respect in order to enhance mutual understanding and mutual learning. We oppose politicizing human rights issues and adopting double standards.
China always plays an active and constructive part in the work of the UN Human Rights Council (HRC) and the Third Committee of the UN General Assembly. China is ready to work with other parties to ensure that the HRC and the Third Committee abide by the purposes and principles of the Charter of the United Nations and address human rights issues in a fair, objective and non-selective manner.
VII. Social Issues
1. Transnational Crime
Strengthening international cooperation to prevent and combat various transnational organized crime is not only the common need and general consensus of the international community but also a shared, unshirkable responsibility of all countries. The United Nations Convention Against Transnational Organized Crime and the United Nations Convention Against Corruption are major achievements of the international community in the fight against transnational crime. The international community should, in accordance with the purposes and spirit of the Conventions, strengthen cooperation on the basis of mutual respect.
Having ratified the United Nations Convention Against Transnational Organized Crime and the United Nations Convention Against Corruption, the Chinese government places high importance on honoring its relevant international obligations in real earnest and has taken a series of legislative, administrative and judicial measures in this regard. China has actively engaged in international cooperation, including sound cooperation with UN agencies and relevant international and regional organizations, and vigorous bilateral cooperation in police and judicial matters with the countries concerned. The Chinese government issued and implemented the China National Plan of Action on Combating Human Trafficking (2013-2020), and established an inter-ministerial joint conference system within the State Council. By now, China has signed with over 60 countries more than 120 judicial assistance treaties, many of which cover criminal judicial assistance. It has also stepped up efforts to crack down on organized crime through a series of special law enforcement operations. China is ready to continue to work with the international community to strengthen cooperation to combat various kinds of transnational organized crime.
HIV/AIDS is a serious human health hazard and an impediment to the economic and social development of all countries. To prevent and control HIV/AIDS is an urgent task of the international community and an important dimension of the MDGs.
The international community, especially developed countries, should do more to help developing countries strengthen their capacity for HIV/AIDS prevention and control. The Joint United Nations Program on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS), the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria and other international institutions should increase coordination and play a greater role in helping developing countries fight HIV/AIDS.
The Chinese government has taken a series of measures to prevent and control HIV/AIDS, worked hard to increase the level of rights protection of those living with HIV/AIDS, strengthened the awareness of the whole of society to care for HIV-infected people and AIDS patients, and it encouraged and supported the work of social organizations in the prevention and control of HIV/AIDS. In 2012, the Chinese government issued China's 12th Five-Year Action Plan on Containment and Control of HIV/AIDS, setting the targets of reducing the number of new HIV infections by 25 percent and the AIDS-related mortality rate by 30 percent by the end of 2015 from the levels of 2000. China is ready to actively participate in global initiatives and actions to prevent and control HIV/AIDS, share its experience and provide support and help to others within the scope of its capabilities.
3. Public Health Security
Public health security bears on the health and safety of people of all countries. To ensure global public health security is a shared responsibility of the international community. Governments of all countries should continue to enhance public health capacity building in order to provide effective health services and promote coordinated and sustainable economic and social development.
The Chinese government puts the people first, attaches great importance to public health and is now deepening the reform of the medical and healthcare system. China is ready to make joint efforts with all countries and relevant international organizations to strengthen the exchanges and sharing of information, experience and technology and deepen cooperation to better tackle global public health challenges and enhance people's physical and mental health.
Corruption has become a transnational phenomenon that affects the political, economic and social development of countries across the world. The only way to effectively control and punish corruption is to have full and comprehensive international cooperation. The United Nations Convention Against Corruption demonstrates the common will and resolve of the international community to curb corruption and has positive significance for promoting domestic efforts as well as international cooperation against corruption. The role of this Convention as the main channel in the international fight against corruption should be fully valued and utilized. Other anti-corruption mechanisms or frameworks at the international level should not replace, weaken or alter the principles and institutions established by the Convention.
China attaches great importance to anti-corruption cooperation. As a signatory of the United Nations Convention Against Corruption, China will fully and earnestly honor its obligations under the Convention, facilitate the effective role of the relevant institutions of the Convention and enhance effective cooperation with all countries and international organizations on the basis of mutual respect for sovereignty, equality and mutual benefit.
VIII. UN Financing
Sustained and steady financial support is an important guarantee for the smooth operation of the UN. All member states should earnestly fulfill their financial obligations by paying assessments for both regular budget and peacekeeping operations on time, in full and without conditions to ensure a solid and stable financial footing for the UN.
The efficiency in the use of UN resources should be further enhanced through integration of resources and programs with full consideration and accommodation given to the legitimate concerns and demands of developing countries. Member states should step up coordination and communication to improve work efficiency and give more guidance to the Secretariat in program coordination and budget.
China has always honored its financial obligations to the UN in a responsible manner. China is still a developing country, however, it is ready to make a greater contribution to the UN budget under the principle of capacity to pay on the basis of its development.
IX. Rule of Law
1. The Rule of Law at the National and International Levels
It is the goal of all countries to achieve the rule of law at the national and international levels. At the national level, countries are entitled to independently choose the models of rule of law that suit their national conditions. Countries with different models of rule of law should learn from each other and seek common development in a spirit of mutual respect and tolerance. To strengthen the rule of law at the international level, it is necessary to uphold the authority of the United Nations and its Charter, strictly abide by the universally recognized principles of international law such as sovereign equality, non-interference in others' internal affairs. We should strengthen the observance and enforcement of international law, uphold the consistent and equal application of international law, continuously improve international law-making process and promote democracy in international relations.
2. The International Court of Justice
China attaches importance to the role of the International Court of Justice in maintaining international peace and security, peacefully resolving international disputes, and addressing questions related to explanation and application of international law. China hopes that the Court will make a greater contribution to safeguarding international equity and justice and promoting the development of international law. China consistently stands for the peaceful settlement of international disputes and maintains that the right of countries to independently choose their way of peacefully settling disputes should be respected.
3. The International Criminal Court
The International Criminal Court, as a complement to national legal systems, is responsible for punishing the most serious international crimes, and promoting world peace and judicial justice. The International Criminal Court should perform its duty in strict accordance with law and in an objective and impartial way, earnestly respect the judicial sovereignty of each country, staunchly uphold world peace and judicial justice, continue to increase its public credibility, and take concrete steps to win the trust and respect of the international community.