|Position Paper of China on the 58th Session of the UN General Assembly|
Since the 57th session of the United Nations General Assembly (UNGA), the world has witnessed profound changes with increasing uncertainties and interweaving conventional and non-conventional threats. The issue of development has far from been resolved yet. Nevertheless, peace and development remain the themes of the time. The calls for multilateralism and a strong UN role grow ever stronger.
Under such circumstances, the 58th session of the UNGA is of great significance in strengthening multilateral cooperation and maintaining the leading role of the UN in world affairs. We expect that those important and pressing issues relating to world peace and development will be considered and discussed thoroughly by all Member States so as to achieve common ground and undertake concerted efforts to realize the goals set in the Millennium Declaration.
I. UNITED NATIONS
1. UN PEACEKEEPING OPERATIONS
UN peacekeeping operations should be carried out with the mandate and guidance of the Security Council, and observe the UN Charter and basic principles that have been proven effective through practices in the past.
China is of the view that measures should be taken to increase the efficiency and effectiveness of the UN peacekeeping operations. We support the Secretariat to continue to improve the Standby Arrangement System (UNSAS) and to enhance the rapid deployment capability of peacekeeping operations, corresponding with changes of situations and Members' needs.
China also supports the reform of the DPKO to improve its capability in planning and coordinating. With regard to the recruiting process, relevant resolutions of the General Assembly and the principles of equitable geographical distribution and gender balance should be observed and implemented fully.
2. UN FINANCING
A strong and stable financing basis is the guarantee for the effective functioning of the UN. All Member States should faithfully fulfill their financial obligations by paying all assessed contributions for both regular budget and peacekeeping on time, in full, and without conditions.
UN program budget should be prepared on the basis of making available the adequate resources for the mandated programs and activities, following the principle of efficiency and effectiveness. The priority setting must conform to the interests and needs of majority of Member States, particularly the developing countries.
3. UN REFORMS
China supports the effort to reform the UN with the aim to a stronger and more effective organization and catching up with the pace of times. During the process of reform, the legitimate rights and interests of the developing countries should be taken care of, and the UN's role in promoting economic and social development should be strengthened, so as to achieve the goals set in the Millennium Declaration. The 58th session of the UNGA should discuss thoroughly the Secretary General's Report of the UN Reforms and accelerate the process.
China is in favor of appropriate and necessary reform of the Security Council to enhance its authority, further improve its working method and transparency in decision making and promote its efficiency. The reform should follow the principle of equitable geographical distribution while giving priority to increasing representation of developing countries.
The international community, especially developed countries which are the primary beneficiaries of globalization, should take their obligations and responsibilities to push forward globalization in a stable and balanced manner, so as to enable all countries to benefit equitably from globalization process.
All countries should coordinate and consult to explore specific measures and possible mechanisms on implementing the agreed objectives at the Millennium Summit in the area of development cooperation.
All countries should exchange and share experiences and lessons of various civilizations and models of development, and learn from one another in competition and comparison, so as to seek common ground while shelving differences and achieve common development. This process will give new impetus to world economy and ensure that all people can benefit from globalization.
The international community should dedicate to the establishment of a new international political and economic order in responding to the development of globalization, including reforming the international financial architecture, improving the multilateral trading system to be more open and equitable, as well as strengthening the capacity and role of the UN in coordinating development issues. It should also strive to ensure all countries, especially developing countries to participate equally in the decision making process in world economy.
2. IMPLEMENTATION OF THE MILLENNIUM DEVELOPMENT GOALS
One of the key tasks for the UN is to assist all countries, especially developing countries to achieve MDGs. The international community should:
- take concrete actions to ensure the sustainable and steady increase of ODA to achieve the target of 0.7 per cent of GNP by developed countries.
- enhance the sound development of world trade. The UN should promote the WTO New Round to focus on development issues, so as to make it a real "Round for Development".
- promote cooperation for sustainable development and make the full use of the existing mechanism, especially the UNCSD, to exchange experience and share technology so as to implement the consensus and goals set in WSSD.
- strengthen capacity building for developing countries, provide substantial assistance in institutional and competitiveness building, as well as personnel training, to developing countries according to their needs.
- set up a fair and rational evaluation framework for the process of the MDGs, not only monitoring the achievements at the national level, but also oversighting and assessing the implementation of the commitments on development assistance.
- establish global partnership among governments, international institutions, private sectors and civil society to collaborate closely and join efforts to achieve the MDGs. The UN should play a leading and coordinating role in this aspect.
China supports the fight against terrorism in all forms.
With the coordination of the Security Council and based on UN Charter and principles of international law, the international community should set a long-term and comprehensive counter-terrorism strategy with the aim to eliminating the root causes of terrorism thus making contributions to the world peace and security.
China welcomes the dialogue among civilizations, supports strengthening international counter-terrorism cooperation, and opposes to link terrorism with any specific nation, ethnic or religion.
China is also the victim of terrorism. The East Turkistan terrorist groups are part of international terrorist network. Fighting against the East Turkistan terrorist groups is an important aspect of the international counter-terrorism campaign.
China has supported and actively participated in the drafting of Comprehensive International Convention on the International Terrorism and the International Convention on the Suppression of Acts of Nuclear Terrorism. China expects all parties to continue consultations on the remaining issues of the two draft conventions in a cooperative and constructive manner so as to adopt the two drafts at an early date.
IV. REGIONAL ISSUES
The issue of Iraq should be addressed with a view of long-term interests of Iraqi people as well as maintenance of peace and security in the Middle East and Gulf region.
Iraq's political independence, sovereignty and territorial integrity should be guaranteed in the reconstruction process. The will and choice of Iraqi people should be fully respected. The international community should make efforts to help Iraqi people restore peace and stability, national solidarity, economic rehabilitation and friendly relations with its neighbors at an early date.
The reconstruction of Iraq depends on the joint efforts of the international community. The vital role played by the UN in this process will bring the initiatives of all parties into their full play and ensure the reconstruction work be carried out smoothly and orderly.
China supports and will participate actively in the forthcoming International Conference on Iraq Reconstruction hosted by the UN in the coming October.
2. MIDDLE EAST
China welcomes the relaxation of tension between Israel and Palestine and supports the initiation and implementation of the "Road Map".
China hopes that based on the relevant UN resolutions and the principle of Land for Peace, Israel and Palestine will continue their efforts to honour their commitments and further progress in the peace negotiations.
China believes that the negotiation between Syria and Israel and that between Lebanon and Israel, which are also important parts of Middle East peace process, should be resumed.
China is ready to, together with other parties, contribute to the realization of comprehensive and lasting peace in the region.
The peace process of Afghanistan is at a critical stage and needs continued attention and support of the international community. The international community should fulfill their assistance commitments and facilitate the implementation of Bonn Agreement in accordance with the timetable therein. China supports UN's leading role in the peace process of Afghanistan.
China is of the view that the stability and development of Africa is indispensable to world peace and prosperity. The international community has common responsibility and obligation in helping African countries to achieve national reconciliation, eradicate regional conflict and step onto the road of rehabilitation.
The UN should pay more attention to the conflicts in Africa and play a bigger role in preventing, meditating and resolving conflicts, and support the efforts made by the African countries in this regard.
The essential solution to the conflicts in Africa is development. International community should pay more attention to the development of Africa and take positive measures in eradicating poverty, remitting debts, preventing and curing disease.
V. ARMS CONTROL AND DISARMAMENT
China believes that it is in the interests of all countries to ensure the peaceful use of outer space and to prevent the weaponization of and an arms race in outer space. It is necessary for the Conference of Disarmament to re-establish the Ad Hoc Committee on Prevention of an Arms Race in Outer Space (PAROS) to conduct substantive work with a view to negotiating relevant international legal instruments.
China has always been advocating a complete prohibition and thorough destruction of nuclear weapons. China welcomes the entry into force of the Strategic Offensive Reduction Treaty between the US and Russia, believing that countries with the largest nuclear arsenals bear special and primary responsibilities for nuclear disarmament and that they should continue to reduce their nuclear arsenals drastically and irreversibly, so as to create favorable conditions for further progress in the nuclear disarmament process.
China supports an early entry into force of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty and urges all states that have not signed and ratified the Treaty to do so at an early date. We deem it critical for countries concerned to maintain the moratorium on nuclear test before the entry into force of the Treaty.
China always supports an early negotiation and conclusion of a treaty banning the production of fissile material for nuclear weapons, which is conducive to preventing nuclear proliferation and promoting nuclear disarmament. We hope that the Conference on Disarmament will reach a comprehensive and balanced working program at an early date, so as to launch negotiations of the said treaty.
China is firmly opposed to the proliferation of nuclear weapons in any form. China views the NPT as the cornerstone of the international nonproliferation regime. We support the effort to preserve the Treaty's authority, enhance its universality and promote its implementation and review process. At present, to prevent nuclear terrorism is of realistic significance. We support the international community in adopting necessary measures to guard against nuclear terrorism.
China has all along advocated the complete prohibition and thorough destruction of biological and chemical weapons, and has always been opposed to the proliferation of such weapons. China is devoted to the comprehensive and effective implementation of the Chemical Weapons Convention. China will, along with the international community, continue to make contributions to the process of strengthening the effectiveness of the Biological Weapons Convention within multilateral framework.
China stands firmly against the proliferation of the delivery means of weapons of mass destruction. We support the UN to play an active and important role in addressing the issue of missiles in all its aspects. We are willing to participate actively in international exchanges and cooperation in this field. A fair, reasonable, effective and non-discriminatory multilateral missile non-proliferation regime shall be established with universal participation.
China attaches importance to the significant role of the Convention on Certain Conventional Weapons (CCW) in addressing the humanitarian concerns arising from the warfare, and has actively participated in all the work related to the Convention. China participated and played a constructive role in the five sessions of the Group of the Governmental Experts (GGE) of the State Parties to the CCW and the 2002 Conference of the State Parties to the CCW. China will continue to support and actively participate in the work of the GGE with the hope that further progress will be made. The National People's Congress (NPC) of China has ratified the Amendment of Article I of the Convention, and the Chinese Government will soon deposit the Instrument of Ratification to the UN Secretary-General.
China fully understands and shares the humanitarian concerns of the international community regarding the indiscriminate injuries to innocent civilians caused by landmines. China all along supports and actively participates in the efforts made by the international community to address this issue. As a state party to the Amended Landmine Protocol to the Convention on Certain Conventional Weapons, China has always faithfully implemented the Protocol. Having solved the landmine problems inside the country, China actively participate in the international de-mining assistance through donating funds, providing de-mining equipments, sponsoring international de-mining training workshops and sending de-mining experts to mine-affected countries for on-site instruction in mine clearance, etc. China is willing to strengthen the exchange and cooperation with other countries in international de-mining assistance, so as to make joint efforts to reduce the injuries to civilians caused by landmines.
China all along supports and actively takes part in various international efforts against the illicit trade of small arms and light weapons (SALW). China supports the UN's leading role in the international efforts against the illicit trade of SALW, and supports the report adopted by the UN GGE on identifying and tracing of illicit SALW. The Chinese Government has donated $10,000 this year to the UN DDA for its efforts on SALW.
China has signed the Protocol against the Illicit Manufacturing of and Trafficking in Firearms, Their Parts and Components and Ammunition, supplementing the United Nations Convention against Transnational Organized Crime. China supports an early entry into force of the Protocol, and is making active preparations for the implementation of the Protocol.
VI. SOCIAL ISSUES
1. HUMAN RIGHTS
China maintains all countries are obliged to make continuous efforts to promote and protect human rights in line with the purposes and principles of the UN Charter and international human rights instruments. Such efforts should also be tailored to their prevailing national conditions.
China advocates for international cooperation in the field of human rights and calls for countries to step up exchanges on the basis of equality and mutual respect, so as to enhance mutual understanding, seek common ground while shelving differences and strive for common development.
We stand against double standards and politicization on the issue of human rights.
China will actively participate in the Third Committee of the UNGA, press for equal importance to be attached to the two groups of rights, i.e. economic, social and cultural rights and civil and political rights. China will also follow closely the discussion on such issues as the right to development, terrorism and human rights and international human rights mechanisms.
2. DRUG CONTROL
China holds that countries need to cooperate according to the principle of "international solidarity and burden sharing". The international community should help the developing countries to strengthen their capacity through financial assistance and technical cooperation. The principle of mutual respect for sovereignty and non-interference in each other's internal affairs should be firmly adhered to. Politicization of drug control issues should be avoided.
3. MIGRATION ISSUES
China holds that countries should conduct cooperation in the field of migration on the basis of mutual respect, equality and mutual benefit by opening legal channels to ensure orderly population movement, while cracking down on illegal migration and trafficking in persons.
China believes that illegal migration is one of the salient issues in the field of migration today. Economic disparity and the gap between the rich and the poor constitute one of the major root causes of illegal migration. The international community needs to take practical actions to foster common development and eliminate the root causes of illegal migration.
4. PUBLIC HEALTH
Development of the public health undertaking is the very purpose of economic growth, the responsibility of governments in the world, and the guarantee for a healthy life for all people in the world. Economic globalization provides more chances for the spread and transmission of diseases worldwide, and poses a new challenge to the public health undertaking.
The international community needs to carry out cooperation and work steadily to develop and strengthen the public health undertaking, at both the national and the international level, by adhering to the principle of mutual respect, equality and mutual benefit.
China calls on the developed countries to provide financial and technological assistance to the developing countries and contribute to their capacity building, with a view to jointly promoting development of the public health undertaking and achieving the MDGs as a whole.
VII. TAIWAN ISSUE
The Resolution 2758 adopted at the 26th session of the UNGA has completely resolved the issue of China's representation by recognizing the government of the People's Republic of China as the sole legitimate representative of China in the United Nations . The United Nations is an inter-governmental organization composed of sovereign states. As an inalienable part of China, Taiwan is ineligible for membership in the United Nations.
Since the 48th session of the UNGA, the Taiwan authorities have used every means to try to list the so-called question of Taiwan's participation in the United Nations into the agenda of the UNGA, which has been rejected by the successive General Committees of the UNGA. The Chinese Government hopes that all Member States should adhere to the purposes and principles of the UN Charter and resolution 2758, and refrain from supporting in any form Taiwan's attempts to participate in the United Nations.